Latest Tomorrow's Challenges

Organizational Design

Transition traps

By Michael D. Watkins - 27/06/2017

Every year, thousands of managers enter new leadership positions. Their actions during the first few months on the job can determine their success or failure, yet little first-rate advice is available ...

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Leadership

Does the quest for high status encourage misconduct?

By Jennifer Jordan with Tim Vriend, Onne Janssen. - 19/06/2017

Martin Winterkorn, the former CEO of Volkswagen, was leading his company on a course to surpass Toyota as the largest car maker in the world. And he succeeded. In July 2015, he achieved this pinnacle ...

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Sustainability

Why less bad doesn’t equal good

By Francisco Szekely - 19/06/2017

Why does a company exist?  If you’d asked executives this in the 1970s, the most common answer would have been ‘to make money’. Consumers, employees and the natural environment didn’t really figure in ...

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Supply Chain

Amazon fresh and the disruption of the supply chain

By Ralf W. Seifert with Richard Markoff. - 14/06/2017

The omni-channel supply chain is in our headlines and on our lips. Retailers are experimenting with different ways to meet growing consumer expectation to interact with products in different ways. The ...

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Leadership

Sea change: how to make a sustainable global culture shift

By Carlos Cordon with Michael Leck. - 14/06/2017

In September 2013, shipping giant Maersk Line was facing an unprecedented organizational challenge. The company was about to enter into an alliance, dubbed the P3 network, with two other container ...

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Economics

Déjà vu: Is the film industry’s sequel and remake addiction a sign of the end?

By Knut Haanaes, Michael Sorell - 12/06/2017

The US film industry has been immensely successful and has overshadowed its rivals around the world, but are we starting to see signs of its decline? Is it a victim of the success trap? 2017 has been ...

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Human Resources

How transition coaches accelerate executive onboarding

By Michael D. Watkins - 06/06/2017

In “ Onboarding Isn’t Enough ,” a recent Harvard Business Review article co-authored with Mark Byford and Lena Triantogiannis from Egon Zehnder, we showed that many companies think they are doing a go ...

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Human Resources

Does your company really do a good job of onboarding new hires?

By Michael D. Watkins - 06/06/2017

In “ Onboarding Isn’t Enough ,” a recent Harvard Business Review article I co-authored with Mark Byford and Lena Triantogiannis from Egon Zehnder, we showed that many companies think they are doing a ...

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Leadership

Why VUCA business leaders end up paralyzed, blind and deaf

By Marco Mancesti - 29/05/2017

Leaders cannot orchestrate in a vacuum. In fact, they depend on others in at least three important ways:  1]     Leaders guide, they do not execute. Therefore, they rely on others to take care of ...

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Marketing

Building on unfamiliar turf

By Goutam Challagalla - 15/05/2017

The liberalization of the Indian economy in the 1990s led to a chaotic housing boom in Mumbai. Thousands of real estate developers jostled for space in a sellers’ market, throwing up apartment blocks ...

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Latest insights@IMD

Leadership, Politics, Strategy, Exploration vs. Exploitation

Leading in Turbulent Times

By Tawfik Jelassi, Karine Avagyan with Michelle Perrinjaquet. - 27/05/2017
Contributor: Lars Häggström, Feena May.

Forty-five participants from 32 companies recently attended an IMD Discovery Event to find out what characterizes a high-turbulence environment, how to lead and drive change in the face of adversity, ...

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Leadership, Digital Transformation

Agile Leadership in an Age of Digital Disruption

By Michael R. Wade, Andrew Tarling, Remy El Assir - 01/05/2017
Contributor: Rainer Neubauer.

Over 90 executives attended a recent IMD Discovery Event to learn about the leadership knowledge, skills and behaviors required to succeed in a digitally disruptive environment. New research from the ...

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Innovation, Organizational Design, Strategy

Innovation Happens Elsewhere: Rethinking Your Business to Grow and Compete

By Howard H. Yu, Knut Haanaes, Jayanth Narayanan, Ivy Buche with Lindsay McTeague. - 08/03/2017

Around 70 executives recently took part in a highly participative IMD Discovery Event to understand the concept of open innovation that is currently democratizing invention and product development, by ...

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Organizational Design, Team Leadership

Leading Collaboration in Global Organizations: How to Build a House without a Hammer

By Martha L. Maznevski, Charles Dhanaraj, Anouk Lavoie Orlick with Lindsay McTeague. - 08/03/2017
Contributor: Phillipe Jost, Sebastian Pons Miquel, Ebru Katip.

Almost 100 executives attended a recent Discovery Event to find out how global organizations can create successful collaboration patterns and networks. Professors Martha Maznevski and Charles Dhanaraj ...

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Strategy

Bridging the Capability Gap to Go Global

By Anand Narasimhan, Stéphane J. G. Girod, Knut Haanaes, Nancy Lane with Susan Stehli. - 03/03/2017

Participants from around the world gathered at an IMD Discovery Event in September 2016 to learn how companies can bridge the capability gaps that prevent them from benefitting fully from an increasin ...

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Marketing, Sales

Capturing Value and Avoiding Commoditization through Pricing Excellence

By Stefan Michel, Michael Sorell with Michelle Perrinjaquet. - 21/12/2016

In April 2016, around 60 executives attended an IMD Discovery Event to discuss pricing excellence from different perspectives and to explore recent case studies from both B2B and B2C markets.         ...

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Innovation, Political Economy, Strategy

Health in Fragile Environments

By Carlos A. Primo Braga, James E. Henderson, Howard H. Yu, William A. Fischer, Karine Avagyan with Susan Stehli. - 05/12/2016

In 2014 the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) launched the Global Partnerships for Humanitarian Impact and Innovation (GPHI2) to promote the development of innovative solutions to ...

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Innovation

Digital Business Agility and Workforce Transformation

By Michael R. Wade, Jialu Shan, Andrew Tarling - 26/10/2016
Contributor: Jeff Loucks, James Macaulay, Andy Noronha, Joel Barbier.

In  May  2016,  around 80 executives from 42 global organizations attended an IMD Discovery  Event hosted by the Global Center for Digital Business Transformation.  The aim of the event was to explore ...

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Innovation

Strategies for Responding to Digital Disruption

By Michael R. Wade, Jialu Shan with Lindsay McTeague. - 02/09/2016
Contributor: Jeff Loucks, James Macaulay, Andy Noronha.

  In February 2016, around 70 executives attended an IMD Discovery Event hosted by the Global Center for Digital Business Transformation. The purpose was to shed light on strategic responses to digita ...

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Innovation

A.L.I.E.N. Thinking

By Cyril Bouquet, William A. Fischer, Howard H. Yu, Michael Sorell with Susan Stehli. - 02/08/2016

  In March 2016, 68 participants gathered at IMD to learn about how A.L.I.E.N. thinking could help them transform their businesses and industries. They came away with tools to help them connect with ...

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Latest IMD Professor Reacts

Supply Chain

Amazon buys Whole Foods – a grocery revolution?

By Ralf W. Seifert with Richard Markoff. - 19/06/2017

Right after we published an article on Amazon and its grocery business , Amazon announced the acquisition of the American grocery chain Whole Foods for nearly 14 billion USD. The impact of this move o ...

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Sustainability

What Mr. Trump didn’t say about leaving the Paris Agreement

By Francisco Szekely - 02/06/2017

The US President announced on June 1 st that his country will leave the Paris Accord and leave behind an international effort of diplomacy that took 20 years to develop, and which 195 countries have ...

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Political Economy

Is Switzerland headed for a crisis?

By Arturo Bris - 29/05/2017

Switzerland is heavily integrated into international markets and therefore some of the biggest risks looming on the financial horizon have potential to affect the country. IMD Professor Arturo Bris ...

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Political Economy

What is the future of the European Union?

By Arturo Bris - 29/05/2017

After Brexit and other recent anti-Europe sentiment rearing its head in national elections around Europe, is there reason to be optimistic about the Union? IMD Professor Arturo Bris answers looks at t ...

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Governance

The power and pitfalls of default settings

By Jayanth Narayanan - 01/05/2017

Organ donation rates in some countries are much higher than in others. Neighboring countries with similar cultures can have dramatically different levels of organ donation. For example, organ donation ...

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Leadership

Why powerful people should apologize more often and better

By Jayanth Narayanan - 01/05/2017

The recent scandal involving Ravindra Gaikwad, the Indian Member of Parliament who made headlines after an alleged assault on an Air India Employee for being asked to take an economy instead of a ...

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Sustainability

TESLA becomes a model for sustainable leadership: David and Goliath revisited

By Francisco Szekely - 13/04/2017

Tesla recently reached a market value of USD $ 50.84 billion, briefly surpassing General Motors – which has a USD $ 50.79 billion market value – and thus becoming the most valuable car company in the ...

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Marketing

Boycotting Google: free PR

By Stefan Michel - 06/04/2017

Swiss companies, such as the soft cheese manufacturer Baer and Swiss Life, have announced that they will stop placing any advertising on Google because their ads have appeared alongside YouTube videos ...

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Team Leadership

Jeff Jones at Uber: What's the real story?

By Michael D. Watkins - 21/03/2017

When the going gets tough, do the not-so-tough get going? Such may be the case with Jeff Jones who, after just 6 months as President, has departed Uber . The reason, according to sources cited by Reco ...

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Ethics

The cancer of corporate cheating will kill capitalism

By Jean-Pierre Lehmann - 16/03/2017

And now, it’s Renault! The French anti-fraud agency (DGCCRF) has accused the carmaker of having cheated on its emissions test data for the last twenty-five years. This brings Renault in line with ...

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Latest In the Field

Digital Transformation

IN THE FIELD WITH RECRUIT

By Howard H. Yu, Thomas W. Malnight, Ivy Buche - 06/06/2017

At a glance Recruit successfully transformed its business model from one based on traditional print media to one based entirely online. It went on to launch several new digital platforms that connecte ...

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Human Resources, Team Leadership

IN THE FIELD WITH HONG KONG BROADBAND NETWORK

By Shlomo Ben-Hur, Ivy Buche - 25/04/2017

At  a glance HKBN wants to challenge the largest incumbent in Hong Kong’s highly competitive telecom industry. Snatching market share from the much larger entrenched incumbent is a formidable challeng ...

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Governance, Strategy, Team Leadership

IN THE FIELD WITH ROYAL FRIESLANDCAMPINA

By Robert Hooijberg, Nancy Lane - 05/12/2016

At a glance Two Dutch dairy cooperatives, each with their own operating companies, faced an increasingly competitive and uncertain European market and so they decided to merge. A new CEO was appointed ...

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Economics

IN THE FIELD WITH CISCO INDIA

By Charles Dhanaraj, Ivy Buche - 08/06/2016

At a glance • Multinational companies (MNCs) need to innovate in emerging markets to capture unique opportunities. • Trying to innovate without a supportive, local ecosystem is a formidable task. • Ci ...

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Marketing

IN THE FIELD WITH ROYAL DSM

By Wolfgang Ulaga, Athanasios Kondis - 25/11/2015

At a glance • A diversified industrial manufacturer embarked on an ambitious marketing excellence initiative, driven by the HQ-based CMO. • The company’s technology-focused heritage and a culture of ...

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Sustainability

IN THE FIELD WITH GE HEALTHCARE INDIA

By Wolfgang Ulaga, Athanasios Kondis - 04/11/2015

At a glance • The growth focus in emerging markets is shifting from big mega cities to semi-urban and rural areas. • Serving low-resource business customers in these settings is a formidable task. • G ...

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Latest Books

Family Business

Wise Family Business

By Joachim Schwass with Anne-Catrin Glemser. - 31/10/2016

Wise Family Business aims to help families in business to identify new and better ways of achieving longevity, sustainability and performance. The book presents ground-breaking new insights and practi ...

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Competitiveness

World Competitiveness Yearbook 2016

01/07/2016

The IMD World Competitiveness Yearbook is the leading annual report on the competitiveness of nations and has been published by IMD since 1989. It benchmarks the performance of 62 countries based on m ...

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General Management

Execution and Change Fieldbook

By Bettina Büchel - 26/06/2016

The goal of this fieldbook is to provide you with support in executing and ensuring change around the initiative that you or your team is in charge of. Over the last couple of years of our work with ...

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Innovation

Digital Vortex

By Michael R. Wade with Jeff Loucks, James Macaulay, Andy Noronha. - 25/06/2016

"Digital disruption" sounds like another business buzzword - until it happens to your company. Seemingly out of nowhere, startups and other tech-savvy disruptors attack. Your customers bolt for the do ...

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Value Chain

Strategy is Digital

By Carlos Cordon with Pau Garcia-Milà, Teresa Ferreiro, Pablo Caballero. - 23/06/2016

This book presents strategies and practices to allow everyday companies to cope with the fundamentally changing landscape of business models and to take advantage of the huge business opportunities ...

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Leadership

Inspiring Stewardship

By Didier Cossin with Ong Boon Hwee. - 01/06/2016

Inspiring Stewardship helps leaders drive sustainable development and growth by balancing short- and long-term objectives amidst competing interests. By examining a range of exceptional individual and ...

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Competitiveness

Are You a Tiger, a Cat or a Dinosaur?

By Stéphane Garelli - 12/04/2016

Competitiveness, like social networks, sustainable development or climate change, is a topic that has captured the world. Politicians, businessmen and media constantly refer to it. What does it mean? ...

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Innovation

Created in China

By Georges Haour with Max Von Zedtwitz. - 13/01/2016

Undisputedly, China has become the world's manufacturing powerhouse, accounting for around half of all personal computers, digital cameras and kitchen appliances. However, the country is fast ...

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Political Economy

New Realities

Edited by: Jean-Pierre Lehmann, Carlos A. Primo Braga. 01/12/2015

The book New Realities: Business Dynamics at the Frontiers of Globalization presents a series of assessments of where the global economy may be headed. It builds upon business cases from companies in ...

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Strategy

Your Strategy Needs a Strategy

By Knut Haanaes with Martin Reeves, Janmejaya Sinha. - 09/06/2015

Executives are bombarded with bestselling ideas and best practices for achieving competitive advantage, but many of these ideas and practices contradict each other. Should you aim to be big or fast? ...

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Latest Case Studies

IMD-7-1771

ROTOPLAS: THE INITIAL PUBLIC OFFERING

By Fernandes, Nuno; Kubo, Kenichiro; Baena, Sandra

Topics Finance; Strategy; Equity; Initial Public Offering
Copyright ©2017
Length 8 pages

The limited availability and access to water in Latin America together with the public policy makers’ focus on delivering quality water to more citizens were expected to translate into a continuing an...

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IMD-7-1845

HILTI: CHALLENGING ITS PROCESSES TO BECOME AN AGILE CORPORATION

By Cordon, Carlos; Ferreiro, Teresa

Topics Agility; Lean Management; Start-up Company; Multinational Company; Scrum; Process
Copyright ©2017
Length 16 pages

Hilti’s executive board wanted to expand Hilti’s offer from mainly physical products and just a few free services to a full portfolio of both products and services. The objective was to increase custo...

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IMD-7-1908

TRANSAVIA (A): BUILDING A DIGITAL AIRLINE ECOSYSTEM

By Cordon, Carlos; Wellian, Edwin

Topics Digital Economy; Customer Experience; Operational Excellence; Customer Relationship Management; Digital Business Agility; Revenue Management; Application Development; Agility; Structure; Organizational Change; Board; Decision; Information Technology Infrastructure; Lean Management; Big Data; Low Cost Airline
Copyright ©2017
Length 11 pages

This two-part case series follows the dilemmas that Mattijs ten Brink, CEO of Transavia, is facing at deciding which path he should lead his team, to keep their journey as an independent airline compa...

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IMD-7-1909

TRANSAVIA (B): LOOKING FOR THE NEXT DESTINATION

By Cordon, Carlos; Wellian, Edwin

Topics Digital Economy; Customer Experience; Operational Excellence; Customer Relationship Management; Digital Business Agility; Revenue Management; Application Development; Agility; Structure; Organizational Change; Board; Decision; Information Technology Infrastructure; Lean Management
Copyright ©2017
Length 6 pages

This two-part case series follows the dilemmas that Mattijs ten Brink, CEO of Transavia, is facing at deciding which path he should lead his team, to keep their journey as an independent airline compa...

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IMD-7-1822

MAERSK LINE: BECOMING THE TOYOTA OF SHIPPING (A)

By Cordon, Carlos; Leck, Michael

Topics Operations; Leadership; Lean Thinking; Excellence; Operating System; Global Standardization; Behavior
Copyright ©2017
Length 21 pages

Maersk Line is the world’s largest container shipping company. The industry is fierce and margins low, forcing all to fight for market shares by having lowest cost in operations. In 2014, Maersk Line ...

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IMD-7-1823

MAERSK LINE: BECOMING THE TOYOTA OF SHIPPING (B)

By Cordon, Carlos; Leck, Michael

Topics Operations; Leadership; Lean Thinking; Excellence; Operating System; Global Standardization; Behavior
Copyright ©2017
Length 13 pages

Maersk Line is the world’s largest container shipping company. The industry is fierce and margins low, forcing all to fight for market shares by having lowest cost in operations. In 2014, Maersk Line ...

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IMD-7-1899

UBER THE BAD GUY: DOES IT MATTER? (MINI CASE)

By Haanaes, Knut

Topics Sustainability; Society; Disruption; Ethics; Discrimination; Work Environment
Copyright ©2017
Length 3 pages

This mini-case describes the challenges facing Uber in early 2017 and how it has ended up being perceived as a bad guy. At the same time, it is growing very fast. So, does the bad guy image matter? Le...

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IMD-7-1869

RUSAGRO: GROWING AGAINST THE ODDS

By Leleux, Benoit F.; Shapenko, Andrey; Belostotskaya, Anastasia

Topics Growth Management; Emerging Market; Agribusiness; Entrepreneurship; Value Chain; Vertical Integration; Production; Innovation; Growth Strategy; Human Resource Strategy
Copyright ©2017
Length 23 pages

When Maxim Basov became CEO of Rusagro, one of Russia’s leading agribusiness companies, in 2009, it could not have been a worse time. The world was lurching towards a major economic crisis, and the si...

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IMD-7-1872

RYANAIR STRATEGIC POSITIONING (A): JULY 2013

By Meehan, Seán

Topics Marketing; Operations; Positioning; Transformation; Customer Centricity; Disruption; Strategic Innovation; Innovation
Copyright ©2017
Related Material Video
Length 12 pages

By 2013, after over near 30 years, Ryanair has become the largest airline in Europe in terms of passengers flown internationally. It outperformed its low cost rivals on most operational dimensions. It...

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IMD-7-1873

RYANAIR STRATEGIC POSITIONING (B): ALWAYS GETTING BETTER

By Meehan, Seán

Topics Marketing; Operations; Positioning; Transformation; Customer Centricity; Disruption; Strategic Innovation; Innovation
Copyright ©2017
Related Material Video
Length 13 pages

By 2013, after over near 30 years, Ryanair has become the largest airline in Europe in terms of passengers flown internationally. It outperformed its low cost rivals on most operational dimensions. It...

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Latest Perspectives for Managers

Family Business, Ethics, Sustainability, Leadership, Governance

SECRETS OF SUCCESS IN LONG-LASTING FAMILY FIRMS

By Denise H. Kenyon-Rouvinez - 26/06/2017

Dino Frescobaldi, a poet of the late 13th/early 14th century, played an important role in the development of Italian literature by salvaging the first seven cantos of Dante’s Divine Comedy when the mo ...

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Human Resources, Political Economy

INTRINSIC MOTIVATION: THE MISSING PIECE IN CHANGING EMPLOYEE BEHAVIOR

By Shlomo Ben-Hur, Nik Kinley - 24/05/2016

“I put a dollar in one of those change machines. Nothing changed.” George Carlin (American comedian) Though it is hardly ever listed in job descriptions, changing employees’ behavior is an important p ...

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Communication

LEADING CHINESE COMPANIES ON TO THE INTERNATIONAL STAGE

By Balaji S. Chakravarthy, David Yau - 13/11/2015

Introduction The Boston Consulting Group (BCG) announces each year a list of 100 companies that it believes are global contenders to watch. Not surprisingly, nearly a third of these companies are from ...

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Political Economy

LESSONS FROM AN UNLIKELY CANDIDATE: NOKIA IN CHINA  (2001 to 2008)

By Howard H. Yu - 07/11/2014

To many observers, the growth of the mobile phone market in China is staggering. According to the research firm Canalys, during the first quarter of 2012 sales of smartphones in China saw a ...

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Sustainability

REACHING FOR THE “RESTORATIVE”: RETHINKING THE SUSTAINABILITY JOURNEY

By Daina Mazutis, Christopher Zintel - 27/10/2014

William McDonough and Michael Braungart, pioneers in green design, are credited with the following analogy, “If a car is heading south, slowing down does not cause it to head north. Sooner or later yo ...

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Organizational Design

ARE YOU READY TO SPRING CLEAN YOUR ORGANIZATION?

By Michael R. Wade - 06/05/2014

Removing your organizational clutter Like a house at the end of a long winter, most enterprises are full of clutter. While domestic mess may include outgrown clothing, broken sports equipment, and ...

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Innovation

Digital Business Transformation: Where is your company on the journey

By Donald A. Marchand, Michael R. Wade - 29/04/2014

Digital business transformation (DBT) is happening on a scale and at a speed that managers find both threatening and promising. In a report entitled “The Internet of Everything,” CISCO Systems estimat ...

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Organizational Design, Strategy

ANCHORED AGILITY: THE HOLY GRAIL OF COMPETITIVENESS

By Bettina Büchel, Michael R. Wade - 17/06/2013

  We  state that we are a global company with operations in multiple countries. So, from the outside, it looks like a true multinational; but the view from the inside is less clear: We have 4 e-mail ...

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Organizational Design, Strategy

DEVELOPING UNIQUE BUSINESS MODELS: GOING BEYOND SERVICES/SOLUTIONS

By Michael Yaziji - 21/05/2013

“If I hear the call to ‘innovate’ one more time...” “Innovate! Innovate! Innovate!” It’s become a numbing mantra. Your company strives to innovate and differentiate, but do you have a sneaking suspici ...

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Economics, Finance

OBSTACLES TO IMPLEMENTING VALUE-BASED PRICING

By Stefan Michel - 09/05/2013

Practitioners and researchers largely agree that value-based pricing leads to higher profits than cost-  or competition-based  pricing.[1] Yet,despitethe fundamental superiority of VBP, studies ...

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Latest Working Papers

Innovation

How can traditional businesses react to the digital transformation tsunami? Four steps to success

By Carlos Cordon, Teresa Ferreiro - 15/01/2016

Introduction: How can a company overcome a 90% drop in revenues? By using big data. But how? Where should it start? This is the situation that major Dutch healthcare company Mediq faced in 2012. It us ...

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Economics, Operations

Here Comes the Omnichain

By Carlos Cordon, Teresa Ferreiro - 11/01/2016

Abstract: The value chain encompasses all the activities involved in delivering a product or service to customers. In the pharmaceutical industry, for example, that includes everything from raw materi ...

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Information Technology, Innovation

Corporate Digital Learning: How to Get It “Right”

By Carlos Cordero, Jeanny Wildi - 08/05/2015

Executive Summary: This position paper is a collaborative effort between KPMG AG Wirtschaftsprüfungs-gesellschaft, Germany (KPMG) and IMD business school, Switzerland (IMD). The aim of the paper is to ...

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Economics, Strategy

How Does Multinational R&D Evolve in Emerging Markets?

By Charles Dhanaraj, Rishikesha Krishnan, Srivardhini Jha - 13/04/2015

Abstract: Our inductive study of nine European multinational enterprises (MNEs) and their R&D units in India uncovers a distinct trajectory of overseas R&D evolution, ubiquitous in emerging markets. I ...

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Political Economy

The WTO and the Business Community

By Carlos A. Primo Braga, Athanasios Kondis - 27/11/2014

Introduction 1 It has become a cliché to say that the WTO is at a crossroads. 2 After twelve years of negotiations on the so-called Doha Development Agenda (DDA), it appeared there was no end in sight ...

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Political Economy

The WTO and Agriculture: Opportunities and Challenges for Brazil

By Carlos A. Primo Braga - 07/11/2014

Introduction: The Doha Development Agenda (DDA) negotiations “commemorated” their twelfth anniversary in November 2013. Policymakers in industrialized nations seem to be both distracted (by  the  ...

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Governance, Political Economy

Brazil and China: Complementarity and Competition

By Jean-Pierre Lehmann, Carlos A. Primo Braga - 14/10/2014

Introduction: It is impossible to tell how historians fifty years from now will judge this first decade-and-a-half of the 21st century. Three things, however, are reasonably certain. They will note it ...

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Sustainability

Social and environmental compliance collaboration

By Francisco Szekely - 27/01/2014

Full text restricted  ( The author may grant permission for the text to be released in specific cases. If you are interested, contact  our Information Center   giving your name, company and reason for ...

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Economics, Strategy

Publicly Funded Research for SMEs: Is it worth trying?

By Benoit F. Leleux, , Jim Pulcrano - 22/04/2013

Abstract Innovation is essential to biomedical ventures, but finding the necessary financing can be difficult for small and/or early-stage firms. For this study, 73 Swiss biomedical companies provided ...

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