Carbon leakage, lack of stringent standards, additionality, permanence, fraud, and corruption are key quality challenges. Leakage occurs when emission reductions in one area unintentionally increase emissions elsewhere. The absence of universally accepted criteria for evaluating projects can lead to varying quality and overestimated emission reductions. Additionality. the requirement that the emission reduction would not have occurred without the project, is crucial, but ensuring it can be challenging, sometimes resulting in low-quality offsets. Carbon–offset projects should provide permanent emission reductions; however, risks like deforestation and forest fires may compromise permanence. Finally, fraudulent or corrupt practices may exaggerate emission reductions or misrepresent a project’s true impact.