History of the Center

The IMD World Competitiveness Center has been a pioneer in the field of the competitiveness of nations and World Economy Ranking since 1989. We are proud to celebrate the 30th edition of the World Competitiveness Yearbook in 2018.

1989The IMD World Competitiveness Center is created by Prof. Stéphane Garelli at IMD to publish the “World Competitiveness Report.” The report covers 32 countries, divided into two groups – 22 OECD countries and 10 newly industrialized economies.
1993"Emerging Market Economies Report” analyzing the competitiveness of 20 formerly state-planned economies, in cooperation with a network of local partners.
1994For the first time, the “World Competitiveness Report” presents a single global ranking of the competitiveness of 44 economies. Seven new countries are included: Argentina, China, Colombia, the Czech Republic, the Philippines, Poland and Russia. A unique network of 23 partner institutes around the globe is established to gather the most complete, reliable and recent data to compute the World Economy Ranking.
1996The name of the report is officially changed to World Competitiveness Yearbook after co-publication with the World Economic Forum ends, and both IMD and WEF decide to have their own World Economy Ranking. Continuity in the methodology is ensured and time series for 5 years are presented.
2000The IMD World Competitiveness Center publishes its first Special Report on the competiveness of the Sultanate of Oman.
2001The methodology is revised and the criteria grouped into 4 main factors (previously 8): Economic Performance, Government Efficiency, Business Efficiency and Infrastructure, further divided into 20 sub-factors. At this time all rankings for the past 5 years are recalculated, enabling comparison from 1997. This structure is consistently used to date.
2004Launch of IMD World Competitiveness Online, an interactive database containing all statistics, surveys and rankings from the IMD World Competitiveness Yearbook. It includes time series and allows users to customize the information to their needs. Some main regions are added to the 51 countries covered.
200755 countries are now included in the World Economy Ranking. Regions no longer form part of the main publication, but are produced as separate studies. An increasing number of special reports and customized workshops are conducted being conducted, including for Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, Dubai, Syria, Qatar, Ile de France, Klang Valley, Selangor and Galicia.
2008-2012The number of countries increases to 59. Customized projects are realized for Kazakhstan, Terengganu, United Arab Emirates, Mongolia and Abu Dhabi. An eShop is launched and country profiles and criteria are downloadable in PDF format.
2013Publication of the 25th edition of the IMD World Competitiveness Yearbook on the 60 most competitive economies in the world, in cooperation with our network of partner institutes. World Competitiveness Online now provides access to time series for up to 18 years and the World Competitiveness Center team has acquired unique expertise over the years in conducting customized projects with government entities.
2014IMD appoints Professor Arturo Bris, a professor of finance at the school since 2005, to head the IMD World Competitiveness Center.
2015The IMD World Competitiveness Center expands its activities by undertaking customized projects for companies to benchmark their performance against other firms in their industry and/or in the countries in which they operate. The Business Competitiveness Assessment is a powerful tool to help evaluate a company’s performance. The Center enhances its services by further developing Competitiveness Workshops and Mega Dives  for companies and governments.