History - World Economy Ranking

The IMD World Competitiveness Center has been a pioneer in the field of Competitiveness of Nations and World Economy Ranking. We are proud to celebrate the 28th edition of the World Competitiveness Yearbook in 2016!

1989 The IMD World Competitiveness Center was created by Prof. Stéphane Garelli at IMD, to publish the "World Competitiveness Report." The report was covering 32 countries, divided into two groups: 22 OECD countries and 10 Newly Industrialized Economies.
1993 In addition to the "World Competitiveness Report," the IMD World Competitiveness Center begins publishing the "Emerging Market Economies Report" analyzing the competitiveness of 20 formerly state-planned economies, in cooperation with a network of local partners.
1994 For the 1st time, the World Competitiveness Report presents one global ranking of the competitiveness of 44 economies. 7 new countries are included: Argentina, China, Colombia, the Czech Republic, the Philippines, Poland and Russia. A unique network of 23 Partner Institutes around the globe was established in order to gather the most complete, reliable and recent data to compute the World Economy Ranking.
1996 The name of the report is officially changed to "World Competitiveness Yearbook" after co-publication with the World Economic Forum ended and both IMD and WEF decided to have their own World Economy Ranking. The continuity in the methodology used was ensured and time series for 5 years were presented.
2000 The IMD World Competitiveness Center published a first Special Report on the competiveness of the Sultanate of Oman.
2001 The methodology used was revised and the criteria grouped into 4 main factors (previously 8): Economic Performance, Government Efficiency, Business Efficiency and Infrastructure, further divided into 20 sub-factors. At this time all rankings were recalculated for the past 5 years, enabling comparison as of 1997. This structure has consistently been used up to now.
2004 Launch of "IMD World Competitiveness Online," an interactive database including all statistics, surveys and rankings from the IMD World Competitiveness Yearbook, including time series and enabling users to customize the information to their needs. Some main regions were added to the 51 countries covered.
2007 The countries in our World Economy Ranking amounted to 55. Regions were no longer a part of the main publication, but from 2007 were put forward as separate studies. In this period an increasing number of special reports and customized workshops were conducted over the years, such as Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, Dubai, Syria, Qatar, Ile de France, Klang Valley, Selangor and Galicia.
2008-2012 The number of countries covered increased to 59. The methodology was refined to adapt the impact of out layers, while keeping the consistency and comparability of the rankings over the years and the 2/3 hard data and 1/3 opinion survey ratio. Further customized projects were realized for Kazakhstan, Terengganu, United Arab Emirates, Mongolia and Abu Dhabi. To meet our customers' needs, an e-shop was put in place and country profiles and criteria were made downloadable in PDF format.
2013 We were proud to publish the 25th edition of the IMD World Competitiveness Yearbook on the 60 most competitive economies in the world, in cooperation with our network of Partner Institutes. World Competitiveness Online now provides access to time series for up to 18 years and the World Competitiveness Center team has acquired a unique expertise over the years for conducting customized projects with government entities. We are happy to be leaders in Competitiveness and World Economy Ranking.
2014 IMD appoints Professor Arturo Bris to head the IMD World Competitiveness Center. The Center plans to develop new research and benchmarking services. Professor Bris, who is Spanish, has been a professor of Finance at IMD since 2005 and frequently comments in global media on competitiveness issues. In his new role he will direct the publication of the IMD World Competitiveness Yearbook. In addition, the Center under Professor Bris plans to strengthen and develop other research and benchmarking services. These include creating customized competitiveness indices for companies and industries, helping governments prioritize national and regional competitiveness strategies, and boosting the WCC's online offering.
2015 The IMD World Competitiveness Center expands its activities by undertaking customized projects for companies to benchmark their performance against other firms in their industry and/or in the countries where they operate. The Business Competitiveness Assessment is a powerful tool which helps evaluate the company's performance. The Center also enhances its services by further developing Competitiveness Programs, Workshops and Mega Dives (large-scale workshop) for companies and governments.

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IMD World Competitiveness Center
Chemin de Bellerive 23,
P.O. 915, CH-1001 Lausanne

Tel: +41 21 618 02 51

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Order the World Competitiveness Package, online database or Yearbook+CD, as well as country profiles and factors from our eShop

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Mega Dive Thailand – Competitiveness Improvement Program

A Mega Dive is a large-scale interactive workshop which engages participants in the search for different paths to enhance the competitiveness of their organization.

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IMD World Competitiveness Yearbook - Rankings 2016

Our mission is to help people achieve prosperity and quality of life and this is how we expect our rankings to be used and interpreted" said Professor Arturo Bris, Director of the IMD World Competitiveness Center.

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IMD World Competitiveness Center: Competitiveness Programs

Competitiveness programs for companies and governments:
By Arturo Bris and the IMD World Competitiveness Center Team

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IMD World Competitiveness Center