Facebook Facebook icon Twitter Twitter icon LinkedIn LinkedIn icon Email
Team group dynamics

Team building

Shaping group dynamics in teams for effective collaboration

Published 9 August 2023 in Team building • 9 min read

As a business leader, one of your most crucial responsibilities is guiding your team toward success. To do this effectively, it is essential to understand the complex and nuanced world of group dynamics, as these can significantly impact your team’s ability to collaborate, innovate, and ultimately achieve its goals.

A deep understanding of group dynamics allows you to better diagnose problems within your team, identify areas for improvement, and capitalize on the strengths of individual team members. 

Group dynamics encompass a range of factors that could shape the interactions within your team, including unconscious biases, role and power dynamics, hidden agendas and alliances, emotional contagion, and groupthink. These dynamics influence how team members communicate, make decisions, and collaborate, ultimately affecting your team’s overall performance and effectiveness.  

The study of group dynamics seeks to understand these patterns and provide insights to improve group functioning. Addressing these various factors can cultivate an environment that fosters productivity, innovation, and trust. Additionally, a proactive approach to managing group dynamics can help you prevent issues from escalating, ensuring that your team operates at its full potential. 

The origins of group dynamics 

The study of group dynamics emerged in the early 20th century with the work of social psychologists such as Kurt Lewin, who is often considered the founder of modern social psychology. Lewin’s research on group dynamics and leadership in the 1940s laid the foundation for understanding the impact of group processes on individual behavior and group performance. 

Wilfred Bion, a British psychoanalyst, is another key figure in developing group dynamics. His groundbreaking research on group behavior in the 1950s and 1960s explored the underlying emotional and psychological processes that influence group dynamics. Bion identified basic assumptions that unconsciously guide group behavior, such as dependency, pairing, and fight or flight. 

Other significant contributors to the development of group dynamics theory include Solomon Asch, who explored conformity and social pressure, and Irving Janis, who introduced the concept of groupthink. Over time, the study of group dynamics has evolved and expanded, incorporating insights from various disciplines, such as sociology, organizational behavior, and management, to inform our understanding of how groups function and how they can be more effective. 

Key ideas in group dynamics 

The following sections highlight key concepts of group dynamics, providing insights and strategies for managing the complex and often subtle interactions that shape your team’s performance. By implementing these strategies, you can create a positive and supportive environment that enables your team members to thrive, ultimately contributing to the long-term success of the team and your organization. 

Unconscious biases 

Unconscious biases are deeply ingrained attitudes or stereotypes that can shape our judgments and behaviors toward others. In a team context, these biases can lead to unfair favoritism or discrimination based on factors such as race, gender, or age. For example, confirmation bias occurs when individuals favor information that confirms their pre-existing beliefs. This can manifest in a team setting when members only consider data that supports their preferred solution while disregarding contrary evidence. Another example is gender bias, for example, assuming that a male member is more competent in technical tasks, even when female members have equal or greater expertise. 

Group dynamics
A proactive approach to managing group dynamics can help you prevent issues from escalating, ensuring that your team operates at its full potential

To address unconscious biases within your team, it is essential to encourage awareness and self-reflection among team members. This will help them identify their own biases and work towards overcoming them. Creating a diverse and inclusive team environment that encourages the sharing of different perspectives and experiences can also mitigate the impact of unconscious biases. Furthermore, incorporating bias training and workshops into your team’s professional development initiatives can equip members with the tools and strategies to recognize and challenge their biases, fostering a more inclusive and effective team environment. 

Role dynamics 

Role dynamics refer to the unconscious expectations and behaviors shaped by the roles that team members assume or are assigned. These roles can become entrenched, limiting individual contributions and stifling creativity. Roles that can emerge in teams include the scapegoat, a person unfairly blamed for the team’s failures; the sacrificial lamb, a person placed in the position of getting set up to be criticized by the team leader to diminish their standing or status; and the savior, a person who takes on the responsibility of solving the team’s problems. 

To manage role dynamics effectively, it is essential to clearly define roles and responsibilities, ensuring that each member understands their part in the team’s success. Encouraging team members to explore different roles and responsibilities can promote flexibility and adaptability, preventing the entrenchment of specific roles. Additionally, fostering open communication allows individuals to express concerns about their roles and any perceived imbalances, creating an environment where role dynamics can be addressed and resolved constructively. 

Power dynamics 

Power dynamics arise from imbalances within a team, which can lead to unhealthy competition, domination, or submission. These dynamics can hinder collaboration and productivity and create a toxic work environment. Unconscious power dynamics can be driven by factors such as seniority, expertise, or social influence. 

To foster equitable power distribution and collaboration within your team, it is essential to establish clear roles and responsibilities, ensuring that each team member has a voice and an opportunity to contribute. Encouraging inclusive decision-making processes that invite input from all members and value diverse perspectives can also help to balance power dynamics. Furthermore, promoting a culture of mutual respect and trust, where team members feel comfortable expressing their opinions and constructively challenging one another, can contribute to a more harmonious and collaborative team environment. 

Hidden agendas 

Hidden agendas are personal motives or goals not explicitly shared with the group. These agendas can influence individual behavior and decision-making, leading to team conflicts, distrust, or misaligned priorities. 

To uncover and address hidden agendas in your team, fostering open communication and transparency is crucial. Encourage team members to share their thoughts, feelings, and motives, allowing for a more open and honest team dynamic. Setting clear team goals and expectations can also help ensure that individual objectives align with the broader objectives of the team and the organization. Additionally, cultivating a culture of trust where team members feel secure in expressing their needs and aspirations without fear of judgment or retribution can contribute to a more cohesive and effective team environment. 

Sub-groups and alliances 

Sub-groups and alliances can form within a team, creating divisions that hinder collaboration, communication, and overall team cohesion. These sub-groups may develop based on shared interests, work styles, or personal connections. While they may provide support and connection for their members, they can also lead to an “us versus them” mentality. They can be detrimental if they lead to fragmentation or unhealthy competition within the group. 

Group dynamics
Incorporating bias training and workshops into your team's professional development initiatives can equip members with the tools and strategies to recognize and challenge their biases

To mitigate the impact of sub-groups and alliances, encourage cross-functional collaboration and team-building activities that involve all team members, breaking down barriers between sub-groups. Establish clear expectations for inclusive behavior and teamwork, ensuring that all members understand the importance of working together for the team’s success. Additionally, monitor team dynamics closely, addressing any signs of exclusion or division before they become entrenched. This proactive approach can help maintain a unified and collaborative team environment. 

Dependency dynamics 

Dependency dynamics occur when group members develop a sense of reliance on a leader or authority figure within the team. This reliance can manifest in several ways, such as seeking approval, validation, or direction from the leader. While some dependency is natural in a team setting, excessive dependence can hinder the team’s ability to function independently and make well-informed decisions. 

As a leader, you should encourage your team members to develop a sense of autonomy and responsibility. Provide them with opportunities to make decisions and take ownership of their tasks. Additionally, promote a culture of open communication where team members feel comfortable seeking guidance without becoming overly reliant on your input.  

Fight or flight dynamics 

Fight or flight dynamics arise when group members experience conflict or stress, triggering a defensive response. In a fight response, team members may become aggressive or confrontational, while a flight response may lead to avoidance or disengagement. These dynamics can impede effective communication, problem-solving, and collaboration within the team. 

Promoting a culture of psychological safety is essential to manage fight or flight dynamics, as it helps team members feel comfortable expressing their thoughts and emotions without fear of retribution. Encourage healthy conflict resolution strategies, such as active listening, empathy, and compromise, to help navigate difficult situations. As a leader, modeling appropriate behavior in times of stress or conflict demonstrates emotional intelligence and effective communication. 

Being proactive in addressing potential sources of stress or conflict within the team is also essential. This involves surfacing and handling issues before they escalate, preventing the onset of fight or flight dynamics. Providing resources and support for team members to manage stress and build resilience is another crucial aspect of managing these dynamics. This can include training in stress management techniques and fostering a healthy work-life balance. 

Emotional contagion 

Emotional contagion occurs when one person’s emotions influence the emotions of others in the group, spreading throughout the team. This can impact team morale and productivity, as negative emotions can quickly escalate and disrupt the team’s ability to function effectively. 

To manage and mitigate emotional contagion in your team, promoting emotional awareness and self-regulation is essential. Encourage team members to recognize and manage their own emotions, helping them to prevent the spread of negativity. Creating a psychologically safe environment where individuals can openly discuss their emotions and their impact on the team can also be beneficial. As a leader, it’s essential to lead by example, modeling emotional intelligence and empathy in your interactions with team members to create a supportive and emotionally stable team atmosphere. 


Groupthink occurs when the desire for conformity and agreement within a group leads to poor decision-making. This phenomenon is often driven by the desire to avoid conflict, maintain group harmony, or support a strong leader. A well-known example of groupthink is the Challenger Space Shuttle disaster, in which groupthink contributed to the decision to launch despite known technical issues. 

To recognize and mitigate groupthink within your team, it is important to encourage open discussion and debate, welcoming dissenting opinions and alternative perspectives. Promoting diversity of thought and opinion can also help, as it values the unique insights and experiences each team member brings. Additionally, fostering a culture of psychological safety, where team members feel comfortable expressing their thoughts and challenging the status quo without fear of retribution, can prevent groupthink from taking hold. 

Another effective strategy is appointing a devil’s advocate to play a constructive role in challenging the consensus. This ensures that all viewpoints are considered, and potential pitfalls are identified, contributing to more robust decision-making and reducing the risk of groupthink. 

Proactively shaping group dynamics 

Managing group dynamics effectively requires a proactive and ongoing approach. By staying attuned to the various factors that shape your team’s interactions, you can address potential issues before they escalate and foster a positive, supportive team environment. 

To successfully navigate group dynamics in teams, you should be aware of unconscious biases and work to address them. Manage role dynamics to ensure that team members can contribute fully and creatively. Understand and mitigate the impact of emotional contagion on team morale and productivity. Foster equitable power distribution and collaboration within the team. 

It’s also important to uncover and address hidden agendas within the team to maintain trust and cohesion. Recognize and prevent groupthink, ensuring that decision-making processes remain robust and well-informed. By implementing these strategies and staying attuned to the complex world of group dynamics, business leaders can unlock the full potential of their teams, driving long-term success for both the team and the organization. 


Michael Watkins - IMD Professor

Michael D. Watkins

Professor of Leadership and Organizational Change at IMD

Michael D Watkins is Professor of Leadership and Organizational Change at IMD, and author of The First 90 Days, Master Your Next Move, Predictable Surprises, and 12 other books on leadership and negotiation. His book, The Six Disciplines of Strategic Thinking, explores how executives can learn to think strategically and lead their organizations into the future. A Thinkers 50-ranked management influencer and recognized expert in his field, his work features in HBR Guides and HBR’s 10 Must Reads on leadership, teams, strategic initiatives, and new managers. Over the past 20 years, he has used his First 90 Days® methodology to help leaders make successful transitions, both in his teaching at IMD, INSEAD, and Harvard Business School, where he gained his PhD in decision sciences, as well as through his private consultancy practice Genesis Advisers. At IMD, he directs the First 90 Days open program for leaders taking on challenging new roles and co-directs the Transition to Business Leadership (TBL) executive program for future enterprise leaders.


Learn Brain Circuits

Join us for daily exercises focusing on issues from team building to developing an actionable sustainability plan to personal development. Go on - they only take five minutes.
Read more 

Explore Leadership

What makes a great leader? Do you need charisma? How do you inspire your team? Our experts offer actionable insights through first-person narratives, behind-the-scenes interviews and The Help Desk.
Read more

Join Membership

Log in here to join in the conversation with the I by IMD community. Your subscription grants you access to the quarterly magazine plus daily articles, videos, podcasts and learning exercises.
Sign up

Log in or register to enjoy the full experience

Explore first person business intelligence from top minds curated for a global executive audience